The closer the mass of a nucleus is to the mass of an iron or nickel nucleus (60 AMU), the more binding energy that nucleus has per nucleon.
Let’s say that a very heavy nucleus, such as a uranium nucleus weighing 235.0 AMU, splits (fissions) into two nuclei weighing 100.0 AMU and 133.9 AMU and a neutron (1.0 AMU).
With that background, new and surprising experimental evidence will become clear.
Next, the two competing theories will be summarized: the hydroplate theory and the chemical evolution theory.
When separate nucleons (protons and neutrons) are brought together to form a nucleus, a tiny percentage of their mass is instantly converted to a large amount of energy.Readers can then judge for themselves which theory better explains the evidence.First, we need to understand a few terms concerning the atom.Its nucleus has a total binding energy of about 2.2 Me V, so the average binding energy per nucleon is about 1.1 Me V. For example, when uranium fissions, the sum of the binding energies of the fragments is greater than the binding energy of the uranium nucleus, so energy is released.If two deuterium nuclei merge to become helium, 2.2 Me V 2.2 Me V of binding energy are replaced by helium-4’s average binding energy of 7.1 Me V per nucleon, or a total of 4 x 7.1 Me V. Fission (as well as fusion) can be sustained only if energy is released to drive more fission (or fusion). It is also the energy required to break (unbind) a nucleus into separate protons and neutrons.