This approach can be applied to all forms of media by interpreting individuals’ reactions to violent content; thus, this study will incorporate cultivation theory in an analysis of misogynistic lyrics affecting listeners’ attitudes toward domestic violence (Rosenberry & Vicker, 2009).
In reviewing more than five decades worth of research, Potter (1999) extended cultivation theory to determine the following effects of exposure to media violence: Exposure to violent portrayals in the media can lead to subsequent viewer aggression through disinhibition. This study expanded upon previous research incorporating the RAP Scale, priming and cultivation theory to determine how college students’ perspectives on issues of domestic violence reflect misogynistic themes emphasized in explicit rap/hip-hop music.
Exposure to violence in the media can lead to desensitization. Edgar Tyson (2006) developed a 26-item instrument, the Rap Music Attitude and Perception (RAP) Scale, the “only tool available to access an individual’s attitude toward and perception of rap music lyrics” (p. The RAP Scale contains three constructs: empowerment, artistic aesthetics and violent misogynistic. al (2008) found that “listening to music generates an effect on listeners consistent with the content of the music,” such as when rap/hip-hop artists communicate themes condoning “power over, objectification of and violence against women” (p. If you are interested in enrolling a journal at your school, please visit the Journal Quest website.
People exposed to many violent portrayals over time will come to be more accepting of violence (Rosenberry & Vicker, 2009, p. This study incorporated the empowerment and violent misogynistic constructs to measure “violent, sexist, and misogynistic images conveyed in the lyrics” to examine college students’ perceptions of the content through a survey (Gourdine & Lemmons, 2011, p. Music has accompanied major social events throughout the history of mankind.
Also, this paper incorporated the disinhibition hypothesis in relation to how audiences become desensitized to media violence after repeated exposure (Rosenberry & Vicker, 2009).
Over the past two decades, the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women “reported a tremendous increase in the representation of violence against women, particularly sexual violence, in the media” (Stankiewicz & Rosselli, 2008, p. Studies suggest that increased exposure to misogynistic messages has desensitized audiences to the issue of intimate partner violence and fosters greater tolerance of male aggression (Barongan & Hall, 1996). The ambiguity of what constitutes sexual assault or intimate partner violence contributes to public misperception of domestic violence.In the past, what made them so was the proliferation of American music throughout the rest of the world. Listening to music for relaxation is common among students to counter the effects of stress or anxiety while completing difficult academic tasks.Some studies supporting this technique have shown that background music promotes cognitive performance while other studies have shown that listening to music while engaged in complex cognitive...Armstrong (2001) conducted a content analysis of 490 rap songs from 1987 to 1993, in which 22% contained lyrics featuring violence against women including assault, rape and murder.His study classified rap songs into different categories in which rappers either pride themselves on sex acts appearing to harm women, justify other acts of violence, warn women who challenge male domination that they will be assaulted, and/or seem to invite male violence against women (Armstrong, 2001).