The sedimentation or annual varve thickness is relatively uniform, typically 1.2 mm per yr for present conditions in Lake Suigetsu which is located near the coast of the Sea of Japan.
Recently scientists took a 75-m long continuous core from the center of the lake for close analysis including AMS 14C measurements on more than 250 terrestrial macrofossil samples of the annual laminated sediments.
Most information on the past 30,000 years or so is from sites or specimens that have been dated using radiocarbon (14C).
However, the radiocarbon age scale that would be calculated from first principles (based on the decay rate of the 14C isotope, assuming that 14C was at the same level of abundance as it is at present) is not always reliable, because there have been fluctuations in the rate of production in 14C at the top of the atmosphere.
The combined 14C and varve chronologies from Lake Suigetsu are used to calibrate the 14C time scale beyond the range of the absolute tree-ring calibration.
Figure 2 shows an atmospheric 14C calibration for the complete 14C dating range (less than 45 ka). Atmospheric radiocarbon calibration for almost the complete 14C dating range (less than 45 ka cal BP) reconstructed from annually laiminated sediments from Lake Suigetsu (Japan).
When these one-cell algae die, they drift down, shrouding the lake floor with a thin, white layer.
The rest of the year, dark clay sediments settle on the bottom.
Continuous lines show the German oak and pine chronologies fixed by comparison with the varve chronology of Lake Suigetsu."In order to build up a calendar time scale (i.e., varve chronology) for the Suigetsu (SG) core, a total of 85 subsamples were taken in a section of SG extending from 10.43 to 30.34 m below the top sediment, each ca.25 cm in length, including a 1.5 cm overlap with neighbouring subsamples.Using this match, we defined the absolute time scale for the Lake Suigetsu varves chronology.The 29,100 yr Lake Suigetsu chronology then covers the absolute age range from 8830 to 37,930 cal BP. Matching of the 29,100-yr long floating varve chronology from Lake Suigetsu to the absolute chronology.