the 11th century Pantocrator in the dome of the church of Daphni, Greece [see above]) and even 14 (e.g.
the 12th century Cefalu apse mosaic (see below) and the 11th[Above: (enlarge): Christ Pantocrator, Cefalu Cathedral, Sicily.
And at the equivalent point on the Shroud face[, there is exactly the same `topless square' feature where it is merely a flaw in the weave (see below).
[Above (enlarge): Extract from Shroud Scope showing outlined in red the `three sided' or `topless square' (Vignon Marking no 2), superimposed on the above 8th century bust of Christ in the catacomb of Pontianus, Rome: Shroud Scope and Wikipedia. "Catacomba di Ponziano," Google Translate, Wikipedia, 25 January 2016. Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.105; Scavone, D.
But at c.1150 it is still over a century before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud!
century Sant'Angelo in Formis [see above] fresco.
eighth-century fresco" (and on the other pre-1260 portraits of Christ above) conclusive evidence that the Shroud existed in at least the eighth century! C., 1999, "Judgment Day for the Shroud of Turin," Prometheus Books: Amherst NY, pp.1,141,178,246; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.7; Tribbe, F. : Carbon Dating the Turin Shroud," Institute of Physics Publishing: Bristol UK, p.303.
That is, six centuries before the earliest 1260 date given to it by radiocarbon dating! I grant permission to quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. Wilson, I., 1978, "The Turin Shroud," Book Club Associates: London, p.82e. C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St.
Angelo in Formis, Capua, Italy.]"Christ enthroned" fresco has 14 out of the 15 Vignon markings that are on the Shroud, many of which are just incidental blemishes on the cloth. K., 1977, "Shroud," Macmillan: New York NY, p.84; Wilson, 1979, p.104.
Compare the above sketch showing the 15 Vignon markings with this photograph of the Shroud face, which is what artists looking at the Image of Edessa/Shroud directly would have seen.]Vignon identified 20 such oddities (reduced by Ian Wilson to a more certain 15 - see below), most of which artistically made no sense, including imperfections in the Shroud's weave, but were repeated slavishly by Byzantine artists from the 5th to the 12th century.
Confirmation that the artists were copying the Shroud is evident in that they were trying to make sense of a negative image, for example open staring eyes which were actually closed in death, of which they could have had no concept, the camera using negative film not having been invented until the 19th century.
This is part #10, "Vignon markings: Shroud's 1260-1390 radiocarbon date is against the preponderance of the evidence (2)," in my "Steps in the development of my radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud hacker theory," series.
For more information about this series see part #1, "Hacking an explanation & Index." References "[A]", etc., will be to that part of my original post. #8" (originally Revised #1) post, which presented historical evidence for the Shroud's existence in the 13th and 12th centuries [see also "Chronology ... The purpose of documenting all this historical evidence of the Shroud's existence from the 13th to the 1st century is to prove, beyond any reasonable doubt, that the 1988 radiocarbon date of the Shroud as "mediaeval ... And then [since the evidence is overwhelming that the Shroud is authentic] the key questions would be (and are): Given that the leader of the Shroud carbon-dating project, Prof.